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Kansetsu-waza (joint locks)

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As well as the grappling techniques (osaekomi-waza) used to pin opponents in groundwork, there are a variety of techniques that can be applied to limbs and joints and are designed to cause pain that leads to submission (in competitions) or compliance/damage (in real life). These kansetsu-waza use various mechanical principles to over-stretch joints and tendons and are related to the standing locks (also known as kansetsu-waza) taught to Jitsuka, although ude-gatame is one of the few locks that can be used in both situations without much modification.

The locks taught to Jitsuka for groundwork are used against both arms and legs and include juji-gatame (cross hold), which locks the arm of an opponent across your leg making a cross shape; ude-garami (forearm entanglement), which involves pinning the opponent's wrist to the floor then passing your arm under his arm to overstretch his arm tendons; and ashi-gatame (leg hold) which involves locking up the leg with your own leg. However, leglocks are only taught to higher grades because of their difficulty and their potential dangers.

In common with judo, no wristlocks or headlocks are taught in groundwork and they are illegal in competition because they can easily cause damage when applied. However, they can be used in real-life situations.

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